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Last updated: Mar 3, 2018



The Frankish States



Overview.

In the 5th century, the Franks led by their kings of the Merovingian House, took control of the former Roman province of Gaul which gradually the country became known as France.
In the 6th-7th centuries, the Merovingian kings divided the country among the members of their House.

By the end of the 7th century, the Kingdom of the Franks was united, but the real power passed from the Kings to the "Mayors of the Palace" of the family which would be known as Carolingians.

In 751, Pepin "the Short", Mayor of the Palace (Maiordomus), overthrew the last Merovingian King and took the Crown for himself.

In 800, Charles "the Great" / Charlemagne, King of the Franks, was declared Emperor by Pope Leo III. This action was considered as the restoration of the Roman Empire; the kingdom of the Franks became a part of the Carolingian Empire.

The Kingdom of the Western Frankish Kingdom, which later became known as France, appeared as the result of divisions of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century.







Bibliography.

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2. Douët d'Arcq, Louis-Claude . Choix de pièces inédites relatives au règne de Charles VI (Paris : 1863-1864) [Sociétés de l'histoire de France].
3. Lecoy de La Marche, Albert. Les relations politiques de la France avec le Royaume de Majorque. (1892).
4. Recueil général des anciennes lois françaises depuis l'an 420 jusqu'à la Révolution de 1789 (Paris; Belin-Le-Prieur : Verdiere, 1821).
5. Archives historiques du département de la Gironde (Paris & Bordeaux : 1859-).
6. Garrel, Alexis. Ordonnance du Roi sur le service des armées en campagne, du 3 mai 1832 (1856).
7. Fain, Agathon-Jean-François (Baron). Manuscrit de mil huit cent treize, contenant le précis des événemens de cette année, pour servir à l'histoire de l'empereur Napoléon (Paris : Delaunay, 1825).
8. Urseau, Charles. Cartulaire Noir de la Cathédrale d’Angers (1908).
9. Lalore, Charles. Cartulaire de l’Abbaye de la Chapelle-aux-Planches (1878) [Collection des Principaux Cartulaires du Diocèse de Troyes; tome IV].
10. Fleury de Chaboulon, Pierre-Alexandre-Édouard, le Baron de. Les Cent Jours, Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de la vie privée, du retour et du règne de Napoléon en 1815 (1820).
11. Carlier, Claude. Histoire du Duché de Valois (Paris : 1764).
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14. Bulletin des Lois.
15. Labande, Léon-Honoré. Trésor des chartes du comté de Rethel (Monaco : 1902-1916).
16. Teulet, Alexandre. Layettes du trésor des chartes (1863-).
17. Froger, Louis. Cartulaire de l'Abbaye de Saint-Calais (Mamers : G. Fleury et A. Dangin; Le Mans : Pellechat, 1888).
18. Morel, Émile. Cartulaire de L'abbaye de Saint-Corneille de Compiègne (Paris : Société historique de Compiègne, 1977; Nouvelles éditions latines).
19. Deloche, Maximin. Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Beaulieu (en Limousin) (Paris : Impr. impériale, 1859).
20. Laffleur de Kermaingant, Pierre-Paul. Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Michel du Tréport (Ordre de Saint Benoit) (Paris : Firmin-Didot, 1880).
21. Jourdan, Athanase-Jean-Léger. Recueil général des anciennes lois françaises depuis l'an 420 jusqu'à la Révolution de 1789 (Paris : Belin-Le-Prieur : Verdiere, 1821).
22. Champeval, Jean-Baptiste. Cartulaire des abbayes de Tulle et de Roc-Amadour (Brive : Roche, 1903).
23. Riché, Pierre. The Carolingians : a family who forged Europe (Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993).
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27. Pahin, Lucien. Cartulaire des Cordeliers de Pontoise, 1252-1588 (Pontoise : Société historique du Vexin, 1923).
28. Declaration du Roy par laquelle il veut que les maisons des Catholiques qui assistent le Roy de Navarre, esquelles il ne se commet aucun acte d'hostilité soient conservées. Paris, 14 décembre 1589 (Paris : Nicolas Nivelle et Rolin Thierry, 1589).
29. Druilhet; Paul. Archives de la ville de Lectoure : coutumes, statuts et records du XIIIme au XVIme siècle (Paris : H. Champion, 1885).
30. Devillers, Léopold. Cartulaire des comtes de Hainaut de l'avènement de Guillaume II a la mort de Jacqueline de Bavière. 1337-1436 (Bruxelles : F. Hayez, 1881-1896).
31. Archives historiques du Poitou (Poitiers).
32. Rymer, Thomas; Holmes, George. Foedera, conventions, litterae, et cujuscumque generic acta publica inter reges Angliae et alios quosvis imperatores, reges, pontifices, principes, vel communitates. 1101-1654 (London : Tonson, 1727-1729; 2nd ed., 17 vols).
33. Menjot d'Elbenne, Samuel. Cartulaire du chapitre royal de Saint-Pierre-de-la-Cour du Mans [Société historique de la province du Maine].
34. Maulde La Clavière, René de. Procédures politiques du règne de Louis XII (Paris : Imprimerie nationale, 1885).
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36. (Dom) Calmet, Augustin. Histoire de Lorraine: qui comprend ce qui s'est passé de plus mémorable dans l'Archevêché de Tréves, & dans les Evêchés de Metz, Toul et Verdun ... (Nancy : A. Leseure, 1745-1757).
37. Jourdain, Charles-Marie-Gabriel Bréchillet. Bulles et documents concernant la Grande Aumônerie de France et le Chapitre de Saint Denis... (Paris : Imprimerie impériale, 1855).
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Chistian (First) names.

Charles -> Carolus;
Guntram -> Gontran;
Hugh -> Hugo; Hugues;
Louis / Chlovis -> Ludovicus / Hludovicus; Ludwig / Chlodwig;
Odo -> Eudes;
Rudolf -> Ralph; Raoul;
Theodoric -> Thierry; Dietrich;






Geographical names.

Aquitaine -> Aquitania (in SW France);
The Franks -> Francorum;
Milan -> Mediolarum; Milano (in N Italy);
Poland -> Polonia; Pologne, Polska;






The Kingdom of the Franks

--- the 5th century-774

King of the Franks;

@ Samples:

(Jan 515) [17: Doc.# 1]
< Childebert I (+558), King the Franks 511 >
Childebertus rex Francorum

(Dec 558) [38: tome 1; p.3; Doc.# 2]
Childebertus, rex Francorum

< Chilperich I (+584), King the Franks 561 >

(Nov 585) [24: p.10-11; Doc.# 5]
< Guntram "the Saint" (+592), King of the Franks 561 >
Gunthramnus rex Francorum

(Feb 596) [24: p.15; Doc.# 7]
< Childebert II (+596), King of the Franks 575 >
Childebertus rex Francorum

(625) [38: tome 1; p.9; Doc.# 5]
< Chlothar II (+629), King the Franks 584 >
Chlotharius rex Francorum

(June 653) [38: tome 1; p.15; Doc.# 11]
< Chlovis / Louis II (+657), King the Franks 639 >
Chlodovius rex Francorum

< Theodoric III (+691), King the Franks 673 >

(Sep 693) [17: p.8; Doc.# 5]
< Chlovis III (+695), King of the Franks >
Chlodoveus rex Francorum

(Feb 703) [38: tome 1; p.22; Doc.# 15]
< Childebert III (+711), King of the Franks >
Childeberthus, rex Francorum

< Dagobert III (+715), King of the Franks 711 >

(Feb 717) [38: tome 1; p.24; Doc.# 17]
< Chilperic II (+721), King of Neustria 715, all the Franks 718 >
Chilperichus, rex Francorum

(July 753) [38: tome 1; p.26; Doc.# 20]
< Pipin"the Short" (+768), King of the Franks 751 >
Pippinus, rex Francorum

(Feb 774) [17: p.16; Doc.# 10]
< Charles "the Great" / Charlemagne (+814), King of the Franks 768; Emperor 800 >
Karolus gratiae Dei rex Francorum

@ Samples [Regents]:

(Apr 742) [24: Doc.# 10]
< Carloman (+755), Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia [741-747] >
Ego Karlmannus, dux et princeps Francorum

(Mar 744) [24: p.28-29; Doc.# 12]
< Pipin "the Short" (+768), Mayor of the Palace in Neustria, Provence & Burgundy [741-751], King of the Franks 751 >
ego Pippinus, dux et princeps Francorum






--- 774-800 ( Charles I "the Great" / Charlemagne )

King of the Franks, the Langobards;

@ Added:

- the Langobards
Charles I / Charlemagne conquered the Kingdom of the Langobards in Italy (774).

@ Samples:

(Nov 775) [16: tome 1; p.1; Doc.# 1]
< Charles "the Great" / Charlemagne (+814), King of the Franks 768; Emperor 800 >
Karolus, gratia Dei rex Francorum et Langobardorum ac
patricius Romanorum

(Mar 779) [38: tome 1; p.33; Doc.# 25]
Carolus, gratia Dei rex Francorum et Langobardorum atque
patricius Romanorum









The Carolingian Empire (800-887)

Notes:
1. On Christmas Day of 800, Charles "the Great" / Charlemagne (+814), was declared Emperor by Pope Leo III. This was considered as the restoration of the Roman Empire. France (the Kingdom of the Franks) became a part of the Empire.


--- 800-814 ( Charles I "the Great" / Charlemagne )

Emperor governing the Roman Empire;
King of the Franks, the Langobards;

@ Samples:

(Feb 806) [24: p.126; Doc.# 45]
< Charles "the Great" / Charlemagne (+814), King of the Franks 768; Emperor 800 >
Karolus serenissimus augustus, a Deo coronatus magnus pacificus imperator,
Romanum gubernans imperium, qui et
per misericordiam Dei rex Francorum atque Langobardorum

(Apr 812) [24: p.169; Doc.# 76]
Karolus, serenissimus augustus, a Deo coronatus, magnus pacificus imperator,
Romanum gubernans imperium, qui et
per misericordiam Dei rex Francorum et Langobardorum






--- 814-843

Emperor;

@ Removed:

- [814] the Roman Empire, the Franks, the Langobards
Emperor Louis I "the Fair" (+840) changed the Imperial title to affirm the unity of the Empire (814) [23: p.146].

@ Samples:

(Aug 814) [17: p.21; Doc.# 13]
< Louis I "the Fair" (+840), Emperor 814 >
Hludovicus divina ordinante clementia imperator augustus

(May 825) [17: p.23; Doc.# 14]
Hludovicus divina ordinante providentia imperator augustus

(829) [8: p.8; Doc. # III]
< Louis I "the Fair" (+840) with Lothar I (+855), Co-Emperor 817, Emperor 840 >
Hludovicus et Hlotharius, divina ordinante providentia imperatores augusti

(Oct 833) [9: p.122; Doc. # 5]
Ludowicus divina ordinante providentia imperator augustus






--- 875-887

Notes:
1. In 875, after the death of Emperor Louis II, Charles "the Bald", supported by Pope John VIII, descended into Italy, receiving the Imperial Crown at Rome.
2. In 884, after King Carloman's death, Emperor Charles III "the Fat" / "le Gros" (+888) added the Kingdom of the Western Franks to his possessions. It was the last time the Western Frankish (France) and Eastern Frankish (Germany) Kingdoms were united under the same ruler. When, in 887, his power collapsed he was succeeded in France by Odo / Eudes, Count of Paris, and by his nephew Arnulf in Germany. Since 887 the Western Franks (the French) did not recognize any Emperor of the (Holy) Roman Empireas their overlord.

Emperor;

@ Samples:

(Oct 876) [16: tome 1; p.13; Doc.# 11]
< Charles "the Bald / le Chauve" (+877), King of the West Franks 843; Emperor 875 >
Karolus, ejusdem Dei omnipotensis misericordia omnipotenis imperator augustus

(Oct 886) [8: p.34-35; Doc. # XIV]
< Charles III "the Fat / le Gros" (+888), King in Swabia 876; Emperor 881 >
Karolus ejusdem Dei misericordia omnipotenis imperator augustus









The Kingdom of Western Franks

Notes:
1. The Empire was not monolithic, its different parts were given to the members of the Carolingian House who bore the title of King and recognized suzerainty of Emperors.
2. In 843, the Treaty of Verdun gave Charles "the Bald" (+877) the Kingdom of the Western Franks (France).


--- 843-916

@ Samples:

(Feb 844) [8: p.10-11; Doc. # IV]
< Charles "the Bald" / "le Chauve" (+877), King of the West Franks 843; Emperor 875 >
Karolus Dei gratia rex

(Apr 878) [38: tome 1; p.69; Doc.# 51]
< Louis II "the Stammerer / le Bègue" (+879), King the West Franks 855/877 >
Hludovicus, misericordia Dei rex

(June 882) [19: p.20; Doc. # VIII]
< Carloman (+884), Kings of the West Franks >
Karlomannus, gratia Dei, rex

(June 889) [19: p.28; Doc. # XII]
< Odo (+898), King of the West Franks 888 >
Odo, misericordia Dei, rex

(June 911) [38: tome 1; p.80; Doc.# 59]
< Charles III "the Simple" (+929), King of the West Franks 893 >
Karolus, divina propitiante clementia, rex

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(before 888) [38: tome 1; p.70; Doc.# 52]
< Odo (+898), King of the West Franks 888 >
ego, in Dei nomine, Odo, Parisiorum pagi humillimus comes