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The Holy Roman Empire and Germany


Overview

In December 800, Charlemagne / Charles "the Great", King of the Franks, who had conquered most of German lands, was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III. This act was considered the restoration of the Roman Empire in the West. Charlemagne’s Empire included the French, German Italian, and other lands.

In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Charlemagne's grandsons divided the Empire. Lothair I, the eldest brother, ruled with the title of Emperor, his brothers ruled as Kings.

In 887, the power of Emperor Charles III "the Fat" collapsed and the Empire completely disintegrated. Several independent kingdoms were formed: West Francia (France), East Francia (Germany), Italy, Provence, Burgundy, etc.
In 891-924, some rulers of these kingdoms bore the title of Emperor after the Roman Popes crowned them.

In Feb 962, Pope John XII crowned Emperor Otto I, King of Germany, as Emperor. After this coronation, only the German rulers received the Imperial Crown. Germany became the core of the new Empire, which became known as the Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium, Heiliges Römisches Reich). The Empire also included the Kingdoms of Italy, Burgundy, and Bohemia.

In the 13th century, the German monarchy finally became elective; its head was elected by the German princes. After the election, elected monarchs took the title of the King of the Romans (Rex Romanorum; römischer König). Until 1519, the Kings of the Roman received the right to be called the Emperor only after the Roman Popes or their representatives crowned them. Some of the Kings of the Romans did not have a chance to become Emperor. Since 1519, the elected heads of the Holy Roman Empire took the title of Emperor of the Romans immediately after the election.

Since the 13th century, the central Imperial government grew weak, and local authorities (dukes, bishops, counts, city councils, knights) gradually established real political control over their territories. After the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, the local authorities in the Empire received many attributes of sovereignty; however, they continued to recognize the Imperial suzerainty.

In August 1806, the Holy Roman Empire was abolished.

In 1871, William I, King of Prussia, was declared the hereditary Emperor of the newly created German Empire.

The November Revolution of 1918 abolished monarchies in Germany.




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Geographical names.

Alsace -> Elsass (in Haut-Rhin and Bas-Rhin, E France);
Austria -> Österreich;
Biscay -> Vizcaya; Bizkaia (in the Basque Country, N Spain);
Blâmont -> Albimontium; Blankenberg (in Lorraine, France);
Bohemia / Czechia -> Böhmen (Czech Republic);
Bukovina - > Bukovyna; Bucovina; Bukowina (in the Chernivtsi Region,W Ukraine and in N Romania);
Burgundy -> Bourgogne (in Yonne, Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Ain, and Nièvre, E France);
Carinthia -> Kärnten (in Austria and in Slovenia);
Carniola -> Krain (in Slovenia);
Cieszyn -> Tesin; Teschen in (Silesia, S Poland and in Czech Republic);
Crakow -> Krakow; Krakau (in SE Poland);
Croatia -> Hrvatska;
Enns -> Anasa (a river in Austria);
Galicia (in NW Spain);
Galicia -> Halychyna; Galizien; Galicja; Halicz (in W Ukraine and in SE Poland) ;
Gelderland / Guelderland / Guelders -> Gelre; Geldern (in the Netherlands and in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany);
Goceano (in Sardinia, Italy);
Ferrette -> Pfirt (in Haut-Rhin, Alsace, NE France);
Friuli - > Friaul; Furlanija (in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, NE Italy).
Gorizia -> Goritia; Gorica; Gurize; Görz (in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, NE Italy);
Gradisca (d'Isonzo) -> Gardiscje; Gradisce; Gradiska (in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, NE Italy);
Flanders -> Vlaanderen (Belgium);
Habsburg (Aargau, N Switzerland);
Hainaut / Hainault -> Henegouwen; Hennegau; Hinnot (in Wallonia, Belgium);
Hungary -> Ungarn; Magyarország;
Lodomeria -> Volodymyr-Volynskyy (Volhynia / Volyn / Wolyn, in NW Ukraine);
Lorraine [the Upper Lorraine] -> Lothringen (France);
Lotharingia [the Lower Lorraine] -> Lothryck / Lothrijk; Lothier (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg);
Lusatia -> Lausitz; Luzice; Luzicko; Luzyca (in Saxony, SE Germany);
"The Margraviate of the Holy Roman Empire" (Antwerp, in Belgium);
Mechelen / Mecheln / Mechlin -> Malines (in Belgium);
Milan -> Mediolanum; Milano; Mailand (in N Italy);
Moravia -> Morava; Mähren (in E Czech Republic);
Kotor -> Cattaro (in Montenegro);
Kyburg (in Zurich, Switzerland);
Oristano (in Sardinia, Italy);
Oswiecin -> Auschwitz (in Silesia, SW Poland);
Pordenone -> Portus Naonis; Portenau (in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, NE Italy);
Ragusa -> Dubrovnik (in W Croatia);
Salm (the Upper Salm) (in Vosges, E France).
Sardinia -> Sardegna (in Italy);
Salins (-les-Bains) -> Salinarum (in Jura, E France);
Silesia -> Schlesien, Slask (in SW Poland and in NE Czech Republic);
Slavonia -> Esclavonia; Slavonija (in E Croatia);
Swabia -> Schwaben (in SW Germany and in NW Switzerland);
Trent -> Trient, Trento (in NE Italy);
Transylvania -> Siebenbürgen; Erdély (in NW Romania);
Tuscany -> Hetruria / Etruria; Toscana (in Italy);
Venice -> Venezia; Venedig (in Italy);
Voivodina / Vojvodina of Serbia ("Voivodship or Duchy") (in N Serbia);
The Wendish March -> Marchia Sclavonice, "Windischen Mark" (in Slovenia).
Zadar -> Zara (in W Croatia);





The Holy Roman Empire (800-1806)


--- 800-814 ( Charles I "the Great" / Charlemagne )

Emperor governing the Roman Empire;
King of the Franks, the Langobards;

@ Samples:

(Nov 803) [35: p.147; Doc.# LXXVII]
< Charles “the Great” / Charlemagne (+814), King of the Franks 768; Emperor 800 >
Carolus serenissimus Augustus a Deo ordinatus, magnus, pacificus imperator
Romanorum gubernans imperium, qui et
per misericordiam Dei rex Francorum et Langobardorum

(Feb 806) [31: p.126; Doc.# 45]
Karolus serenissimus augustus, a Deo coronatus magnus pacificus imperator,
Romanum gubernans imperium, qui et
per misericordiam Dei rex Francorum atque Langobardorum

(Apr 812) [31: p.169; Doc.# 76]
Karolus, serenissimus augustus, a Deo coronatus, magnus pacificus imperator,
Romanum gubernans imperium, qui et
per misericordiam Dei rex Francorum et Langobardorum






--- 814-877

Emperor;

@ Removed:

- [814] the Roman Empire, the Franks, the Langobards
Emperor Louis I "the Fair" changed the Imperial title to affirm the unity of the Empire (814) [30: p.146].

@ Samples:

(Aug 814) [29: p.21; Doc.# 13]
< Louis I "the Fair" (+840), Emperor 814 >
Hludovicus divina ordinante clementia imperator augustus

(Jan 824) [35: p.191; Doc.# CV]
< Louis I “the Fair” (+840), Emperor 814; with Lothar I (+855), Co-Emperor 817, Emperor 840 >
Hludovicus et Hlotharius divina ordinante providentia imperatores augustos

(May 825) [29: p.23; Doc.# 14]
Hludovicus divina ordinante providentia imperator augustus

(Oct 833) [27: p.122; Doc. # 5]
Ludowicus divina ordinante providentia imperator augustus

(Mar 848) [35: p.284; Doc.# CLXVII]
< Lothar I (+855), Co-Emperor 817, Emperor 840 >
Hlutharius divina ordinante providentia imperator augustus

(Sep 851) [35: p.294; Doc.# CLXXII]
< Lothar I (+855), Co-Emperor 817, Emperor 840; with Louis II (+875), King in Italy 844; Co-Emperor 850, Emperor 855 >
Hlotharius et Hlodovicus, divina ordinante providentia, imperatores augusti

(Dec 863) [35: p.380; Doc.# CCXXVII]
< Louis II (+875), King in Italy 844; Co-Emperor 850, Emperor 855 >
Hludovicus divina hordinante providentia imperator augustus

(Oct 876) [28: tome 1; p.13; Doc.# 11]
< Charles "the Bald” (+877), King of the West Franks 843; Emperor 875 >
Karolus, ejusdem Dei omnipotensis misericordia omnipotenis imperator augustus






--- 877-881 ( Interregnum )

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(Nov 877) [35: p.461; Doc.# CCLXXIV]
< Carloman (+880), King in Bavaria [876-879], in Italy [877-879] >
Karlomannus divina favente gratia rex

(Jan 880) [35: p.498; Doc.# CCXCIII]
< Charles III “the Fat” (+888), King in Swabia 865, in East Francia [882-887], in Italy 879; Emperor 881 >
Karolus divina ordinante providentia rex






--- 881-888 ( Charles III )

Emperor;

@ Samples:

(Apr 881) [35: p.509; Doc.# CCC]
< Charles III “the Fat” (+888), King in Swabia 865, in East Francia [882-887], in Italy 879; Emperor 881 >
Karolus divina ordinante providentia imperator augustus

(July 887) [35: p.568; Doc.# CCCXXXIX]
Karolus divina ordinante providencia imperator augustuss






--- 888-891 ( Interregnum )

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(Dec 888) [35: p.572; Doc.# CCCXLII]
< Guy (+894), Duke of Spoleto 883; King in Italy 889; Emperor 891 >
Wido opitulante Dei clementia rex

(June 889) [35: p.573; Doc.# CCCXLIII]
< Arnulf (+899), King in East Francia (Germany) 887, in Italy 894; Emperor 896 >
Arnulfus divina favente clementia rex






--- 891-898 ( Guy & Lambert )

Emperor;

@ Samples:

(Feb 891) [35: p.576; Doc.# CCCXLVI]
< Guy (+894), Duke of Spoleto 883; King in Italy 889; Emperor 891 >
Wido divina favente clementia imperator augustus

(May 892) [35: p.583; Doc.# CCCLI]
< Guy (+894), Duke of Spoleto 883; King in Italy 889; Emperor 891; with Lambert (+898), King in Italy 891, Co-Emperor 892, Emperor 894 >
Wido et Lambertus gratia et misericordia ejusdem omnipotentis Dei imperatores augusti

(July 896) [35: p.611; Doc.# CCCLXVIII]
< Lambert (+898), King in Italy 891, Co-Emperor 892, Emperor 894 >
Lambertus divina favente clementia imperator augustus

(Jan 898) [35: p.623; Doc.# CCCLXXVI]
Lambertus divina hordinante providentia imperator augustus

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(Dec 894) [35: p.601; Doc.# CCCLXII]
< Berengar I (+924), Margrave of Friuli; King in Italy 887; Emperor 915 >
Berengarius gratia Dei rex

(July 896) [35: p.612; Doc.# CCCLXIX]
Berengarius divina favente clementia rex






--- 896-899 ( Arnulf )

Emperor;

@ Samples:

(Sep 898) [36: Band II (1856); p.40; Doc.# XXX]
< Arnulf (+899), King in East Francia (Germany) 887, in Italy 894; Emperor 896 >
Arnolfus diuina fauente clementia Imperator augustus






--- 901-905 ( Louis III )

Emperor;

@ Samples:

(Mar 901) [35: p.654; Doc.# CCCXCI]
< Louis "the Blind" (+928), King in Provence 887, in Italy 900; Emperor (Louis III) 901 >
Hludowicus divina favente clementia imperator augustus

(June 905) [35: p.696; Doc.# CCCCXIV]
Hludovicus divina favente clementia imperator augustus

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(Oct 900) [35: p.639; Doc.# CCCLXXXVI]
< Louis "the Blind" (+928), King in Provence 887, in Italy 900; Emperor (Louis III) 901 >
Hludevicus divina favente clementia rex






--- 905-915 ( Interregnum )

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(June 906) [35: p.612; Doc.# CCCCXX]
< Berengar (+924), Margrave of Friuli; King in Italy (Berengar I ) 887; Emperor 915 >
Berengarius divina ordinante clementia rex

(July 915) [35: p.798; Doc.# CCCCLXII]
Berengarius gratia Dei rex






--- 915-924 ( Berengar )

Emperor;

@ Samples:

(May 916) [35: p.809; Doc.# CCCCLXVII]
< Berengar (+924), Margrave of Friuli; King in Italy (Berengar I ) 887; Emperor 915 >
Berengarius divina ordinante clementia imperator augustus

(Dec 921) [35: p.852; Doc.# CCCCXCV]
Berengarius divina favente clementia imperator augustus

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(Feb 922) [35: p.853; Doc.# CCCCXCVI]
< Rudolph II (+937), King in Upper Burgundy 912, in Provence 933, in Italy 922 >
Rodulfus gracia Dei rex






--- 924-962 ( Interregnum )

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(Feb 926) [35: p.853; Doc.# CCCCXCVI]
< Rudolph II (+937), King in Upper Burgundy 912, in Provence 933, in Italy 922 >
Rodulfus divina hordinante providentia rex

(Aug 926) [35: p.886; Doc.# DXX]
< Hugh of Provence (+947), King in Italy 924 >
Hugo divina favente clementia rex

(Apr 931) [35: p.915; Doc.# DXXXVII]
< Hugh of Provence (+947), King in Italy 924 ; with Lothair II (+950), Co-King in Italy, King 947 >
Hugo et Hlotarius filius eius divina hordinante providentia reges

(Jan 949) [35: p.1003; Doc.# DLXXXVIII]
< Lothair II (+950), Co-King in Italy, King 947 >
Lotharius gratia Dei rex

(Jan 950) [35: p.1011; Doc.# DXCI]
< Berengar II (+966), King in Italy 950; with Adalbert (+971), Co-King in Italy 950 >
Berengarius et Adelbertus divina providente clementia reges

(Aug 961) [35: p.1116; Doc.# DCXLVIII]
Berengarius et Aldelbertus gratia Dei reges






--- 962-973 ( Otto I )

Emperor;

@ Samples:

(Feb 962) [33: tomus I (1879-1884); p.327; Doc.# 236]
< Otto I (+973), King in Germany 836; Emperor 962 >
Otto divina favente clementia imperator augustus

(Jan 970) [32: Band I; Abtheilung I (1885); p.45; Doc.# 94]
Otto divina favente clementia imperator augustus






--- 961-967 ( Otto II )

King;

@ Samples:

(July 961) [33: tomus II; pars I (1888); p.10; Doc.# 1]
< Otto II (+983), Co-King in Germany 961; Co-Emperor 967, Emperor 973 >
Otto divina ordinante clementia rex

(Oct 967) [33: tomus II; pars I (1888); p.24; Doc.# 16]
Otto divina ofavent clementia rex






--- 967-983 ( Otto II )

Emperor;

@ Samples:

(Feb 968) [33: tomus II; pars I (1888); p.24-25; Doc.# 17]
< Otto II (+983), Co-King in Germany 961; Co-Emperor 967, Emperor 973 >
Otto divina ordinante providencia imperator augustus

(Apr 972) [33: tomus II; pars I (1888); p.28-29; Doc.# 21]
Otto divina favente clelnentia imperator augustus

(June 983) [33: tomus II; pars I (1888); p.368; Doc.# 312]
Otto divina favente clelnentia imperator augustus






--- 983-996 ( Otto III )

King;

@ Samples:

(Oct 984) [33: tomus II; pars II (1893); p.393; Doc.# 1]
< Otto III (+1002), King in Germany 983; Emperor of the Romans 996 >
Otto divina favente clemencia rex

(Dec 995) [32: Band I; Abtheilung I (1885); p.48; Doc.# 100]
Otto divina favente clementia rex






--- 996-1002 ( Otto III )

Emperor of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(Dec 996) [33: tomus II; pars II (1893); p.649-650; Doc.# 235]
< Otto III (+1002), King in Germany 983; Emperor of the Romans 996 >
Otto divina favente clemencia Romanorum imperator augustus

(Nov 1001) [33: tomus II; pars II (1893); p.847; Doc.# 413]
Otto tercius divina favente clementia Romanorum imperator augustus nec non
apostolorum servus






--- 1002-1014 ( Henry II )

King;

@ Samples:

(Apr 1010) [36: Band II (1856); p.75; Doc.# LVII]
< Henry II (+1024), King in Germany 1002; Emperor of the Romans 1014 >
Heinricus diuina fauente clementia Rex






--- 1014-1024 ( Henry II )

Emperor of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(June 1014) [36: Band II (1856); p.76; Doc.# LVIII]
< Henry II (+1024), King in Germany 1002; Emperor of the Romans 1014 >
Heinricus diuina fauente Clementia romanorum Imperator Augustus






--- 1024-1027 ( Conrad II )

King;

@ Samples:

(Mar 1025) [32: Band I; Abtheilung I (1885); p.57; Doc.# 113]
< Conrad II (+1039), King in Germany 1024; Emperor of the Romans 1027 >
Chuonradus diuina fauente clementia rex






--- 1027-1039 ( Conrad II )

Emperor of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(May 1039) [36: Band II (1856); p.81; Doc.# LXII]
< Conrad II (+1039), King in Germany 1024; Emperor of the Romans 1027 >
Chuonradus diuina fauente clementia romanorum Imperator Augustus






--- 1039-1046 ( Henry III )

King;

@ Samples:

(Jan 1040) [36: Band II (1856); p.81; Doc.# LXIII]
< Henry III (+1056), Co-King 1028, King in Germany 1039; Emperor of the Romans 1046 >
Heinricus diuina fauente clementia Rex






--- 1046-1056 ( Henry III )

Emperor of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(Feb 1048) [32: Band I; Abtheilung I (1885); p.62; Doc.# 119]
< Henry III (+1056), Co-King 1028, King in Germany 1039; Emperor of the Romans 1046 >
Heinricus divina favente clementia Romanorum imperator augustus






--- 1056-1084 ( Henry IV )

King;

@ Samples:

(Feb 1062) [32: Band I; Abtheilung I (1885); p.66; Doc.# 124]
< Henry IV (+1106), Co-King 1053, King in Germany 1056; Emperor of the Romans 1084 >
Henricus divina favente clementia rex

(Sep 1065) [37: Band II (1881); p.272-273; Doc.# 209]
Heinricus divina favente clementia rex

(July 1180) [39: Collectio nova; volumen IV; pars I (1836); p.363; Doc.# CXCIV]
Heinricus Diuina fauente Clementia Rex






--- 1081-1088 ( Herman of Salm )

King;

@ Samples:

(Aug 1082) [37: Band II (1881); p.274; Doc.# 210]
< Herman (+1088), Count of the Lower Salm; King in Germany 1081 >
Herimannus divina favente clementia rex






--- 1084-1106 ( Henry IV )

Emperor of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(Feb 1090) [39: Collectio nova; volumen IV; pars I (1836); p.369; Doc.# CXCVI]
< Henry IV (+1106), Co-King 1053, King in Germany 1056; Emperor of the Romans 1084 >
Heinricus diuina fauente Clementia tertius Romanorum Imperator Augustus

(Apr 1099) [36: Band II (1856); p.122; Doc.# LXXXV]
Henricus divina favente clementia tertius Romanorum Imperator Augustus

(Feb 1105) [39: Collectio nova; volumen IV; pars I (1836); p.380; Doc.# CC]
Heinricus dei gratia tertius Romanorum Imperator Augustus






--- 1106-1111 ( Henry V )

King of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(July 1107) [37: Band II (1881); p.278; Doc.# 212]
Heinricus divina favente clementia quintus Romanorum rex

(May 1108) [38: Haupttheil I; Band II (1889); p.14; Doc.# 17]
Heinricus divina favente clementia quintus Romanorum rex






--- 1111-1125 ( Henry V )

Emperor of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(Apr 1114) [38: Haupttheil I; Band II (1889); p.37; Doc.# 43]
< Henry V (+1125), Co-King in Germany 1099; Emperor of the Romans 1111 >
Heinricus divina favente clementia quartus Romanorum imperator augustus

(May 1124) [32: Band I; Abtheilung I (1885); p.101; Doc.# 172]
Heinricus divina favente clementia quartus Romanorum imperator augustus






--- 1125-1133 ( Lothar III )

King;

@ Samples:

(Nov 1125) [36: Band II (1856); p.162; Doc.# CIX]
< Lothair III (+1137), King in Germany 1125; Emperor of the Romans 1133 >
Ego Lotharius diuina fauente gratie rex






--- 1133-1137 ( Lothair III )

Emperor of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(Aug 1136) [37: Band II (1881); p.289-290; Doc.# 218]
< Lothair III (+1137), King in Germany 1125; Emperor of the Romans 1133 >
Ego Lotharius divina favente clementie tercius Romanorum imperator augustus






--- 1138-1152 ( Conrad III )

King of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(Apr 1138) [39: Collectio nova; volumen IV; pars I (1836); p.392; Doc.# CCVII]
< Conrad III (+1152), King in Germany 1138 >
Cunradus dei gratia romanorum rex Secundus

(Oct 1144) [37: Band II (1881); p.291; Doc.# 219]
Conradus divina favente clementia Romanorum rex secundus

(June 1147) [36: Band II (1856); p.240; Doc.# CLX]
Cunradus diuina fauente clemencia Romanorum rex secundus






--- 1155-1190 ( Frederick I )

Emperor of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(Aug 1159) [39: Collectio nova; volumen IV; pars I (1836); p.413; Doc.# CCXIX]
< Frederick I "Barbarossa" (+1190), King of the Romans 1152; Emperor of the Romans 1155 >
Fridericus diuina fauente clementia romanorum imperator augustus

(Apr 1180) [37: Band II (1881); p.334; Doc.# 240]
Fridericus divina favente clementia Romanorum imperator augustus

(May 1189) [39: Collectio nova; volumen IV; pars I (1836); p.435; Doc.# CCXXVIII]
Fridericus dei gratia Romanorum imperator et semper augustus






--- 1190-1191 ( Henry VI )

King of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(Apr 1190) [39: Collectio nova; volumen IV; pars I (1836); p.439; Doc.# CCXXX]
< Henry VI (+1197), King of the Romans 1190, of Sicily 1194; Emperor of the Romans 1191; ~ 1186 Constance (+1198), Queen of Sicily 1194 >
Heinricus sextus diuina fauente clementia Romanorum Rex semper augustus






--- 1191-1194 ( Henry VI )

Emperor of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(May 1193) [39: Collectio nova; volumen IV; pars I (1836); p.445; Doc.# CCXXXIII]
< Henry VI (+1197), King of the Romans 1190, of Sicily 1194; Emperor of the Romans 1191; ~ 1186 Constance (+1198), Queen of Sicily 1194 >
Henricus Sextus diuina fauente clemencia Romanorum Imperator et semper augustus






--- 1194-1198 ( Henry VI )

Emperor of the Romans;
King of Sicily;

@ Added:

- [1212] Sicily
Emperor Henry VI was crowned as King of Sicily (1194).

@ Samples:

(Apr 1195) [22: vol.6; # 1]
< Henry VI (+1197), King of the Romans 1190, of Sicily 1194; Emperor of the Romans 1191; ~ 1186 Constance (+1198), Queen of Sicily 1194 >
Henricus sextus divina favente clementia romanorum imperator,
Rex Sicilie et
semper Augustus






--- 1198-1204 ( Philip I )

King of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(Mar 1202) [13: Band 1; p.4; Doc.# 6]
< Philip I (+1208), Duke of Tuscany 1195; King of the Romans 1198 >
Philippus dei gratia Romanorum rex semper augustus

(Jan 1208) [13: Band 1; p.10; Doc.# 14]
Philippus secundus divina favente clementia Romanorum rex et semper augustus

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(June 1195) [13: Band 1; p.1; Doc.# 1]
< Philip I (+1208), Duke of Tuscany 1195; King of the Romans 1198 >
Philippus dei gratia dux Tuscie et
quondam domini nostri Friderici Romanoruin imperatoris filius

(Apr 1196) [13: Band 1; p.2; Doc.# 2]
Phylippus dei gratia dux Tuscie






--- 1198-1208 ( Otto IV )

King of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(May 1209) [13: Band 1; p.16; Doc.# 25]
< Otto (+1218), Count of Poitou; Duke of Aquitaine; King of the Romans 1198; Emperor 1209 >
Otto quartus dei gratia Romanorum rex semper augustus

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(Jan 1198) [13: Band 1; p.13; Doc.# 19]
< Otto (+1218), Count of Poitou; Duke of Aquitaine; King of the Romans 1198; Emperor 1209 >
Otho dux Aquitanie,
comes Pictaviensis






--- 1209-1212/1218 ( Otto IV )

Emperor of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(Oct 1209) [13: Band 1; p.19; Doc.# 29]
< Otto (+1218), Count of Poitou; Duke of Aquitaine; King of the Romans 1198; Emperor 1209 >
Otto quartus divina favente clementia Romanorum imperator semper augustus

(Mar 1214) [13: Band 1; p.65; Doc.# 69]
Dei gratia Otto quartus Romanorum imperator et semper augustus






--- 1212-1225 ( Frederick II )

King of the Romans;
King of Sicily;

@ Added:

- [1212] Sicily
King Frederick of Sicily was elected King of the Romans (1212).

@ Samples:

(Apr 1212) [13: Band 1; p.96; Doc.# 111]
< Frederick (+1250), King of Sicily 1198; King of the Romans 1212; Emperor (Frederick II) 1220 >
Fredericus dei gracia rex Sicilie, ducatus Apulie, et principatus Capue,
in Romanorum imperatorem electus et semper augustus

(Mar 1213, n.s.) [13: Band 1; p.99; Doc.# 116]
Fredericus secundus dei gracia Romanorum rex semper augustus et
rex Sicilie

(June 1219) [13: Band 2; p.11; Doc.# 10]
Fridericus secundus divina favente clementia Romanorum rex semper augustus et
rex Sicilie






--- 1220-1225 ( Frederick II )

Emperor of the Romans;
King of Sicily;

@ Samples:

(Mar 1223) [14: vol.1; p.168]
Fredericus divina favente clementia Romanorum Imperator semper augustus et
Rex Sicilie






--- 1220-1235 ( Henry "VII" )

King of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(1220) [13: Band 1; p.378; Doc.# 445]
< Henry "VII" (+1242), Co-King of the Romans [1220-1235]; son of Emperor Frederick II >
Heinricus dei gratia Romanorum rex et semper augustus

(July 1225) [13: Band 1; p.386; Doc.# 452]
Heinricus septimus dei gracia Romanorum rex et semper augustus

(Jan 1231) [32: Band I; Abtheilung I (1885); p.292; Doc.# 434]
Heinricus dei gratia Romanorum rex semper augustus






--- 1225-1250 ( Frederick II )

Emperor of the Romans;
King of Jerusalem, Sicily;

@ Added:

- [1225] Jerusalem
Emperor Frederick II became King of Jerusalem when he married Yolande / Isabella of Brienne (+1228), Queen of Jerusalem (1225).

@ Samples:

(Sep 1226) [13: Band 2; p.19; Doc.# 19]
< Frederick (+1250), King of Sicily 1198; King of the Romans 1212; Emperor (Frederick II) 1220 >
Fridericus secundus divina favente clementia Romanorum imperator semper augustus,
Jerusalem et Sicilie rex

(Feb 1250, n.s.) [13: Band 1; p.364; Doc.# 424]
Fridericus secundus divina favente clemencia Romanorum imperator semper augustus,
Ierusalem et Sicilie rex

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(Mar 1238) [13: Band 1; p.400; Doc.# 476]
< Conrad (+1254), King of Sicily (Conrad I) & Jerusalem 1250; Co-King (King 1250) of the Romans (Conrad IV) 1237 >
Conradus divi augusti imperatoris Friderici filius,
dei gratia Romanorum in regem electus semper augustus et
heres regni Ierusalemitani

(Dec 1249) [13: Band 1; p.404-405; Doc.# 484]
Conradus divi augustissimi imperatoris Friderici filius,
dei gratia Romanorum in regem electus semper augustus,
heres regni Ierusalem






--- 1250-1254 ( Conrad IV )

King of the Romans;
King of Jerusalem, Sicily;

@ Samples:

(Apr 1251) [13: Band 1; p.405; Doc.# 485]
< Conrad (+1254), King of Silily (Conrad I) & Jerusalem 1250; Co-King (King 1250) of the Romans (Conrad IV) 1237 >
Conradus dei gracia Romanorum in regem electus semper augustus,
Ierusalem et Sicilie rex






--- 1246-1247 ( Henry "Raspe" )

King of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(July 1246) [13: Band 1; p.425; Doc.# 515]
< Henry "Raspe" (+1247), Landgrave of Thuringia 1241; King of the Romans 1246 >
Nos Heinricus dei gratia Romanorum rex et semper augustus






--- 1247-1256 ( William of Holland )

King of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(Mar 1248) [13: Band 1; p.426; Doc.# 515]
< William (+1256), Count of Holland (William II) 1235; King of the Romans 1247; >
Willelmus dei gratia Romanorum in regem electus Semper augustus

(May 1248) [13: Band 1; p.427; Doc.# 520]
Willelmus dei gracia Romanorum rex et semper augustus

(Nov 1255) [13: Band 1; p.448; Doc.# 556]
Wilhelmus dei gratia Romanoram rex semper augustus






--- 1256-1272 ( Richard of Cornwall )

King of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(Aug 1257) [13: Band 1; p.449; Doc.# 557]
< Richard (+1272), Earl of Cornwall 1225; King of the Romans 1256; >
Ricardus dei gratia Romanorurn rex semper augustus

(Sep 1268) [13: Band 1; p.462; Doc.# 577]
Richardus dei gratia Romanorum rex semper augustus






--- 1256-1275 ( Alphonse of Castile )

King of the Romans;
King of Castile, Toledo, Leon, Galicia, Sevilla, Cordova, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarve;

@ Samples:

(Oct 1271) [13: Band 1; p.465; Doc.# 580]
< Alphonse "the Wise" (+1284), King of Castile (Alphonse X ) 1252; King of the Romans [1256-1275] >
Alfonsus dei gratia Romanorum rex semper augustus et
Castelle, Toleti, Legionis, Galitie, Sibilie, Cordube, Murcie, Geheni et Algarbii rex






--- 1273-1312

King of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(Dec 1273) [23: p.317; Doc.# 392]
< Rudolph I (+1291); Count of Habsburg; King of the Romans 1273 >
Rudolfus dei gracia Romanorum rex semper augustus

(June 1293) [23: p.375; Doc.# 501]
< Adolph (+1298); Count of Nassau; King of the Romans 1292 >
Adolfus dei gracia Romanorum rex semper augustus

(Nov 1307) [16: Band 6; p.9; Doc.# X]
< Albert I (+1308), Duke of Austria and Styria 1282; King of the Romans 1298 >
Nos Albertus dei gracia Romanorum Rex semper Augustus

(July 1310) [14: Band 6; p.393]
< Henry VII (+1313), Count of Luxembourg 1288; King of the Romans 1308; Emperor 1312 >
Nos Henricus Dei gratia Romanorum rex semper august






--- 1312-1313

Emperor of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(June 1312) [23: p.455; Doc.# 649]
< Henry VII (+1313), Count of Luxembourg 1288; King of the Romans 1308; Emperor 1312 >
Henricus divina favente clementia Romanorum imperator semper augustus

(Apr 1313) [23: p.459; Doc.# 656]
Henricus dei gratia imperator semper augustus






--- 1314-1328/1330

King of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(May 1315) [17: Abtheilung II; p.232; Doc.# 253]
< Louis IV (+1347), Duke of Bavaria; King of the Romans 1314; Emperor 1328 >
Wir Ludowich von gots gnaden römischer chüning, ze allen zeiten merer des riches

(Feb 1321) [23: p.480; Doc.# 688]
< Frederick "the Fair" (+1330), Duke of Austria and Styria 1308; King of the Romans 1314 >
Nos Fridericus dei gracia Romanorum rex semper augustus






--- 1328-1347

Emperor of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(Aug 1329) [15: Abteilung 1; Band 2; p.124]
< Louis IV (+1347), Duke of Bavaria; King of the Romans 1314; Emperor 1328 >
Wir Ludowig von Gots gnaden Römischer cheiser ze allen zeiten merer dez richs






--- 1346-1355 ( Charles IV of Luxembourg )

King of the Romans;
King of Bohemia;

@ Added:

- [1346] Bohemia
King Charles of Bohemia was elected King of the Romans (1346).

@ Samples:

(Apr 1348) [16: Band 7; p.569; Doc.# 783]
< Charles (+1378), King of Bohemia (Charles I) 1346, of the Romans 1346; Emperor (Charles IV) 1355 >
Karolus dei gracia Romanorum Rex semper Augustus et
Boemie Rex






--- 1355-1378 ( Charles IV of Luxembourg )

Emperor of the Romans;
King of Bohemia;

@ Samples:

(Oct 1355) [16: Band 8; p.262; Doc.# 321]
< Charles (+1378), King of Bohemia (Charles I) 1346, of the Romans 1346; Emperor (Charles IV) 1355 >
Karolus quartus divina favente clementia Romanorum Imperator semper Augustus et
Boemi? rex






--- 1378-1400 ( Wenceslas of Luxembourg )

King of the Romans;
King of Bohemia;

@ Samples:

(Apr 1388) [16: Band 11; p.414; Doc.# 472]
< Wenceslas (+1419), Co-King 1363, King of Bohemia (Wenceslas IV) 1378, of the Romans [1376-1400] >
Wir Wenczlaw von gotes gnaden romischer kunig ze allen czeiten merer des Reichs und
kunig zu Behem






--- 1400-1411

King of the Romans;

@ Samples:

(Jan 1401) [25: Band 4; p.1; Doc.# 1]
< Rupert (+1410), Elector & Count Palatine of the Rhine (Rupert III) 1398; King of the Romans 1400 >
Wir Roprecht von goitz gnaden Roymscher Koning, zo allen zyten merer des rychs

(Jan 1401) [25: Band 4; p.67; Doc.# 61]
< Jost (+1411), Margrave of Moravia 1375, of Brandenburg 1397; King of the Romans 1410 >
Wir Jost von gotes gnaden Romischer konig, zu allen zeiten merer des reichs






--- 1410-1419 ( Sigismund of Luxembourg )

King of the Romans;
King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia;

@ Replaced:

- [1410] Bohemia with Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia
King Sigismund of Hungary was elected King of the Romans (1410).

@ Samples:

(May 1418) [21: p.102; Doc.# XIV]
< Sigismund (+1437), King of Hungary 1387, of the Romans 1410, of Bohemia 1419; Emperor 1433 >
Nos Sigismundus dei gracia Romanorum Rex semper Augustus ac
Hungarie, Dalmacie, Croacie, Rame, Seruie, Gallicie, Lodomerie, Comanie, Bulgarieque Rex,
Marchio Brandenburgensis nec non
Bohemie et Lucenburgensis heres






--- 1419-1433 ( Sigismund of Luxembourg )

King of the Romans;
King of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia;

@ Added:

- [1419] Bohemia
King Sigismund succeeded his brother Wenceslas in Bohemia (1419).

@ Samples:

(July 1420) [7: Band 6; Fortsetzung 1; p.71; Doc.# LV]
< Sigismund (+1437), King of Hungary 1387, of the Romans 1410, of Bohemia 1419; Emperor 1433 >
Sigismundus, Dei gratiâ, Romanorum Rex semper Augustus &
Hungari?, Bohemi?, Dalmati?, Croati?, &c. Rex






--- 1433-1437 ( Sigismund of Luxembourg )

Emperor of the Romans;
King of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia;

@ Samples:

(Aug 1437) [20: dil IV; part.1; p.377; Doc.# 266]
Wir Sigmund, von Gotes gnaden Romischer keiser, czu allen czeiten merer des Reichs, und
czu Hungern, czu Behem, Dalmacien, Croacien etc. kunig






--- 1438-1439 ( Albert II )

King of the Romans;
King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia;
King of Bohemia;
Duke of Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola;
Margrave of Moravia;
Count of Tyrol;

@ Samples:

(May 1438) [19: Abtheilung II; p.42; Doc.# CXXXVI]
< Albert (+1439), Duke of Austria 1404 (Albert V); King of the Romans 1438 (Albert II), of Hungary 1437, of Bohemia 1437 >
Wir Albrecht von gotes gnaden Romischer kunig, ze allen zeiten merer des reichs,
ze Ungern, ze Dalmatien und Croatien etc. kunige,
erwelter kunig ze Behem,
herzog ze Osterreich, ze Steir, ze Kernden und ze Krain,
marggraf ze Merhern und
graf ze Tirol etc.






--- 1440-1452 ( Frederick III )

King of the Romans;
King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia;
Duke of Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola;
Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone;
Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg;
Margrave of Burgau;
Landgrave of Alsace;

@ Samples:

(Nov 1443) [19: Abtheilung II; p.50; Doc.# CXLI]
< Frederick (+1493), Duke of Styria & Carinthia 1424, of Austria 1457; King of the Romans 1440; Emperor ( Frederick III) 1452 >
Wir Fridreich von gotes gnaden Römischer kunig, zu allen zeiten merer des reichs,
herzog ze Osterreich, ze Steir, ze Kernden und ze Krain,
herre auf der Windischen March, ze Portenau,
graf ze Habsburg, zu Tirol, zu Pfirt und ze Kiburg,
markgraf ze Burgau und
lantgrave in Elsass







--- 1459-1493 ( Frederick III )

Emperor of the Romans;
King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia;
Duke of Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola;
Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone;
Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg;
Margrave of Burgau;
Landgrave of Alsace;

@ Samples:

(1471) [9: Teil 1; p.291; Doc.# CLVII]
< Frederick (+1493), Duke of Styria & Carinthia 1424, of Austria 1457; King of the Romans 1440; Emperor ( Frederick III) 1452 >
Wir Fridrich von gottes gnaden Romischer kayser zu allen zeyten merer des reichs
zu Hungern Dalmacien Croacien &c. konig
Hertzog zu Osterreich zu Steyr zu Kernnten unnd zu Crayn
her auf der Windischen marck und zu Portenow
Graf zu Habsburg zu Tyrol zu Pfirt unnd Kyburg
Marggrave zu Burgaw unnd
lanndgraf im Elsas







--- 1490-1493 ( Maximilian I )

Notes. In Dec 1490, Maximilian, married by proxy Anna, Duchess of Brittany. In Dec 1491, Anna who had been forced to give up this marriage, married King Charles VIII of France. In May 1493, the Treaty of Senlis ended the conflict between Maximilian I and Charles VIII.


King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia;
Archduke of Austria;
Duke of Burgundy, Brittany, Brabant, Lotharingia, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland;
Count of Flanders, Habsburg, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg, Artois, Burgundy Palatine, Hainaut, Holland, Seeland, Namur, Zutphen;
Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgau;
Landgrave of Alsace;
Lord of Frisia, the Wendish March, Pordenone, Salins, Mechelen;

@ Samples:

(Feb 1492) [43: p.179; Doc.# I] < for Burgau >
W Maxmilian von Gottes Gnaden Römischer König zu allen Zeiten mehrer des Reichs,
zu Hungarn, Dalmatien, Croatien zc. König,
Erz-Herzog zu Oesterreich,
Herzog zu Burgund, zu Britani, zu Loterich, zu Brabant, zu Steur, zn Kerten, zu Chrain, zu Limburg, zu Luzenburg, und zu Geldern,
Graff zu Flandern, zu Habspurg, zu Tyrol, zu Phirt, zu Küburg, zu Arthois, und zu Burgund Phalenzgraue, zu Henegaü, zu Hollandt, zu Seelandt, zu Namur und zu Zutphen,
Marggraf des heil. Rom. Reichs und zu Burgau,
Landgraff inn Elsass,
Herr zu Friesland, auf der Windischen March, zu Portenau, zu Salins, und zu Mecheln zc.







--- 1493-1500 ( Maximilian I )

King of the Romans;
King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia;
Archduke of Austria;
Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Lotharingia, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland;
Landgrave of Alsace;
Count of Flanders, Habsburg, Tyrol, Gorizia, Artois, Burgundy Palatine, Hainaut, Holland, Seeland, Ferrette, Kyburg, Namur, Zutphen;
Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgau;
Lord of Frisia, the Wendish March, Pordenone, Salins, Mechelen;

@ Samples:

(Aug 1495) [10: Band 1; p.157-159]
< Maximilian I (+1519), Archduke of Austria 1493, King of the Romans 1480, Emperor of the Romans 1508 >
Wir Maximilian von Gots Gnaden Romischer Kunig, zu allen Zeiten Merer des Reichs,
zu Hungern, Dalmacien, Croacien etc. Kunig,
Ertzherzog zu Österreich,
Hertzog zu Burgundi, zu Brabant, zu Lothering, zu Steyr, zu Kerndten, zu Crain, zu Limburg, zu Lutzenburg und zu Geldern,
Grave zu Flandern, zu Habspurg, zu Tyrol, zu Phirt, zu Kyburg, zu Arthois und zu Burgundi Phallenzgrave zu Henigaw, zu Holland, zu Seeland, zu Namür und zu Zutphen,
Marggrave des Heiligen Romischen Reichs und zu Burgaw,
Landgraf zu Elsas,
Herre zu Frießland, auf der windischen Mark, zu Portenaw, zu Salins und zu Mecheln






--- 1500-1508 ( Maximilian I )

King of the Romans;
King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia;
Archduke of Austria;
Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Lotharingia, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland;
Landgrave of Alsace;
Prince of Swabia;
Count Palatine of Habsburg, Hainaut;
Princely Count of Burgundy, Flanders, Tyrol, Gorizia, Artois, Holland, Seeland, Ferrette, Kyburg, Namur, Zutphen;
Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgau;
Lord of Frisia, the Wendish March, Pordenone, Salins, Mechelen;

@ Samples:

(Mar 1502) [11: Band 12; part 1; p. 91]
< Maximilian I (+1519), Archduke of Austria 1493, King of the Romans 1480, Emperor of the Romans 1508 >
Wir Maximilian von gots gnaden Romischer kunig, zu allen tzeitten merer des reichs,
zu Hungern, Dalmacien, Croacien etc. kunig,
ertzhertzog zu Osterreich,
hertzog zu Burgundi zu Lotterick zu Brabant zu Steyr zu Kerrnden zu Crain zu Lymburg zu Lutzemburg und zu Gheldern,
landtgrave im Ellsasz,
furst zu Schwaben,
phalltzgrave zu Hapspurg und zu Hoenigew,
gefurster grave zu Burgundi zu Flandern zu Tirol zu Gortz zu Arthoys zu Holandt zu Seelandt zu Phiert zu Kiburg zu Namur und zu Zutphen,
marggrave des heiligen Romischen Reichs, der Enns und zu Burgaw,
herr zu Frieslandt auf der Windischen marhk zu Mechln zu Portenaw und zu Salins etc.






--- 1508-1518 ( Maximilian I )

Emperor of the Romans;
King in Germany, Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia;
Archduke of Austria;
Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Lotharingia, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland;
Landgrave of Alsace;
Prince of Swabia;
Count Palatine of Habsburg, Hainaut;
Princely Count of Burgundy, Flanders, Tyrol, Gorizia, Artois, Holland, Seeland, Ferrette, Kyburg, Namur, Zutphen;
Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, the Enns, Burgau;
Lord of Frisia, the Wendish March, Pordenone, Salins, Mechelen;

@ Samples:

(May 1517) [9: Teil 2; p.247]
< Maximilian I (+1519), Archduke of Austria 1493, King of the Romans 1480, Emperor of the Romans 1508 >
Wir Maximilian von gots gnaden Romischer kayser, zu allen tzeitten merer des reichs,
in Germanien, zu Hungern, Dalmatien, Croatien etc. konig,
Ertzhertzog zu Osterreich,
Hertzog zu Burgund, zu Lottringk, zu Brabant, zu Steyr, zu Kernden, zu Crain, zu Limburg, zu Luxemburg und zu Gelldern,
Lanntgrave zum Ellsass,
Furst zu Schwaben,
Phalltzgrave zu Habspurg und zu Henigew,
Gefurster grave zu Burgund, zu Flanndern, zu Tirol, zu Görtz, zu Arthois, zu Hollandt, zu Seelandt, zu Phirt, zu Kiburg, zu Namur und zu Zutphen,
Marggrave des heiligen Romischen Reichs, der Enns und zu Burgaw,
herr zu Frieslandt auf der Windischen Mark, zu Mechrln, zu Portenaw und zu Salins &c.






--- 1519-1556 ( Charles V )

Emperor of the Romans;
King in Germany, of Castilia, Aragon, Leon, both Sicilies, Jerusalem, Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Navarra, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Sevilla, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Islands of Canary , of the Indies, Mainland of the Ocean sea;
Archduke of Austria;
Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Lotharingia, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland, Athens, Neopatria, Württemberg;
Landgrave of Alsace;
Prince of Swabia, Asturia, Catalonia;
Count of Flanders, Habsburg, Tyrol, Gorizia, Barcelona, Artois, Burgundy Palatine, Hainaut, Holland, Seeland, Ferrette, Kyburg, Namur, Roussillon, Cerdagne, Zutphen,
Margrave of Burgau, Oristano, Gociano, the Holy Roman Empire;
Lord of Frisia, the Wendish March, Pordenone, Biscay, Molin, Salins, Tripoli, Mechelen;

@ Samples:

(Oct 1530) [24: p.297; Doc. Nn]
< Charles (+1558), King of Spain (Charles I) [1516-1556]; Emperor (Charles V) 1519; Archduke of Austria [1519-1521/22] >
Wir Carl der Fünfft, von Gottes Gnaden, Römischer Kaiser, zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs,
in Germanien, zu Castilien, Arragon, Leon, beeder Sicilien, Hierusalem, Hungarn,Dalmatien, Croatien, Nauarra, Granaten, Tolleten, Vallenz, Gallicien, Majorica, Hispalis, Sardinien, Corduba, Corsica, Murcien, Giennis, Algarbien, Algestrien, Gibraltar, der Canarischen und Indianischen Inseln und Terrefirme, des Oceanischen Meers &c. Künig,
Ertz Herzog zu Oesterreich,
Herzog zu Burgundi, zu Loterick, zu Braband, zu Steir, zu Kerndten, zu Crain, zu Lymburg, zu Limburg, zu Geldern, zu Calabrien, zu Athen, zu Neopatrien und Würtemberg &c.
Grave zu Habspurg, zu Flandern, zu Tyrol, zu Gerts, zu Barenien, zu Arthois, und zu Burgundi &c. Pfalz.Grave, zu Henigau, zu Holland, zu Seeland, zu Pfurt, zu Kyburg, zu Namur, zu Rosilien, zu Teritania, und zu Zitphen &c.
Landgrave im Elsäß,
Marggraue zu Burgau, Oristein, zu Goziani, und des Heiligen Romischen Reichs,
Fürst zu Schwaben, Catalonia, Asturia &c.
Herr zu Frießland, auf der Windischen Marck, zu Portenau, Biscaien, zu Salines, zu Mölln, zu Tripoli und Mecheln &c.






--- 1558-1712

-- the 1st form

Emperor of the Romans;
King in Germany, of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia;
Archduke of Austria;
Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Luxemburg, Württemberg, the Upper & Lower Silesia;
Prince of Swabia;
Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, of Burgau, Moravia, the Upper & Lower Lusatia;
Princely Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg, Gorizia;
Landgrave of Alsace;
Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone, Salins;

@ Samples:

(Feb 1568) [6: p.211; Doc.# I, 1]
< Maximilian (+1576), Co-King 1562 / King of Bohemia & Hungary 1564; Roman King 1562; Archduke of Austria & Emperor of the Romans (Maximilian II ) 1564 >
Wir Maximilian der Ander von Gottes genaden, Erwelter Römischer Kaiser, zu allen Zeiten merer des Reiches
inn Germanien, zu Hungern, Behemb, Dalmatien, Croatien vnd Sclouonien &c. Künig,
Ertzhertzog zu Österreich,
Hertzog zu Burgundi, zu Brabanndt, zu Steyr, zu Kärndten zu Crain zu Lutzemburg, zu Wirttemberg, Ober- vnnd Nider Schlessien,
Fürst zu Schwaben,
Marggraue des Heilligen Römischen Reichs, zu Burgaw, zu Märhern, Ober vnnd Nider Laussnitz,
Gefürsteter Graff zu Habspurgkh, zu Tyroll, zu Pfierdt, zu Khyburg vnd zu Görtz, &c.
Landtgraue inn Elsass,
Herr auf der Windischen March, zu Porttenaw vnd zu Salins, &c.

(Oct 1702) [8:Band 3; Abtheilung 2; p.140; Doc. # LXXVIII]
< Leopold I (+1705), Co-King 1656 / King of Bohemia 1658; Co-King 1655 / King of Hungary 1658; Archduke of Austria & Emperor of the Romans 1658 >
Wir Leopold von Gottes Gnaden erwählter Römischer Kayser, zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs,
in Germanien, zu Hungarn, Böheim, Dalmatien, Croatien und Sclavonien, &c. König,
Ertz-Hertzog zu Oesterreich,
Hertzog zu Burgund, zu Braband, zu Steyer, zu Kärndten, zu Crayn, zu Lützenburg, zu Würtenberg, Ober- und Nieder-Schlesien,
Fürst zu Schwaben,
Marggraff des Heil. Röm. Reichs, zu Burgau, zu Mähren, Ober- und Nieder-Laußnitz,
Gefürsteter Graff zu Habsburg, zu Tyrol, zu Pfyrdt, zu Kyburg, und zu Görtz,
Land-Graff in Elsaß,
Herr auf der Windischen Marck, zu Portenau und zu Salins


-- the 2nd form

Emperor of the Romans;
King in Germany, of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia;
Archduke of Austria;
Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola;
Margrave of Moravia;
Duke of Luxemburg, the Upper & Lower Silesia, Württemberg & Teck;
Prince of Swabia,
Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg, Gorizia;
Landgrave of Alsace;
Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, of Burgau, the Upper & Lower Lusatia;
Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone, Salins;

@ Samples:

(Oct 1693) [12: Teil II; p.361; Anlage 7]
< Leopold I (+1705), Co-King 1656 / King of Bohemia 1658; Co-King 1655 / King of Hungary 1658; Archduke of Austria & Emperor of the Romans 1658 >
Leopoldus, divina favente clementia Electus Romanorum Imperator semper Augustus, ac
Germaniae, Hungariae, Bohemiae, Dalmatiae, Croatiae, Sclavoniae, etc. Rex,
Archidux Austriae,
Dux Burgundiae, Brabantiae, Styriae, Carinthiae, Carniolae etc.
Marchio Moraviae,
Dux Lucemburgiae ac superioris et inferioris Silesiae, Wirtembergae et Teckae,
Princeps Sueviae,
Comes Habspurgi, Tyrolis, Ferretis, Kyburgi et Goritiae,
Landgravius Alsatiae,
Marchio S. Romani Imperii Burgoviae, ac superioris et inferioris Lusatiae,
Dominus Marchiae Sclavonicae, Portus Naonis et Salinarum etc.






--- 1711-1740 ( Charles VI )

Emperor of the Romans;
King in Germany, of Castile, Leon, Aragon, both Sicilies, Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Navarra, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Sevilla, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarve, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, East & West Indias, the Islands & Mainland of the Ocean sea;
Archduke of Austria;
Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Milan, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxemburg, Gelderland, Württemberg, the Upper & Lower Silesia, Calabria, Athens, Neopatria;
Prince of Swabia, Catalonia, Asturia;
Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, of Burgau, Moravia, the Upper & Lower Lusatia;
Princely Count of Habsburg, Flanders, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg, Gorizia, Artois;
Landgrave of Alsace;
Margrave of Oristano;
Count of Goceano, Namur, Roussillon, Cerdagne;
Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone, Biscay, Molina, Salins, Tripoli, Mechelen;

@ Samples:

(Feb 1723) [6: p.315; Doc.# III, 5a]
< Charles (+1740), King of Spain ("Charles III") [1704-1712], of Bohemia & Hungary 1711; Emperor of the Romans (Charles VI) 1711 >
Wir, Carl der Sechste, von Gottes Gnaden Erwehlter Römischer Kayser, zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs,
König in Germanien, zu Castilien, Arragon, Legion, beeder Sicilien, zu Hierusalem, Hungarn, Böheimb, Dalmatien, Croatien, Sclavonien, Navarra, Granaten, Toledo, Valentz, Gallicien, Maiorica, Sevilien, Sardinien, Corduba, Corsica, Murcien, Giennis, Algarbien, Algeziern, Gibraltar, der Canarischen und Indianischen Insulen, und Terrae Firmae und des Oceanischen Meers,
Ertzhertzog zu Österreich,
Hertzog zu Burgund, zu Brabant, zu Meyland, zu Steyr, zu Kärnten, zu Crain, zu Limburg, zu Lützenburg, zu Geldern, zu Wirttemberg , Ober- und Nieder Schlesien, zu Calabrien, zu Athen und Neopatrien,
Fürst zu Schwaben, zu Catalonien und Asturien,
Marggraf des Heil. Römischen Reichs, zu Burgau, zu Mähren, Ober- und Nieder Laussnitz,
gefürsteter Graff zu Habspurg, zu Flandern, zu Tyrol, zu Pfird, zu Kyburg, zu Görtz und zu Arthois,
Landgraff in Elsas,
Marggraff zu Oristani;
Graff zu Goziani, zu Namur, Russilion und Ceritania,
Herr auf der Windischen Marck, zu Portenau, Biscaia, zu Molins, zu Salins, zu Tripoli und zu Mechlen






--- 1740-1745 ( Charles VII )

Emperor of the Romans;
King in Germany, of Bohemia;
Duke in the Upper & Lower Bavaria, the Upper Palatinate;
Count-Palatine of the Rhine;
Archduke of Austria;
Landgrave of Leuchtenberg;

@ Samples:

(Oct 1742) [2: p.IV; Doc.# B]
< Charles-Albert (+1745), Elector-Duke of Bavaria; Emperor of the Romans (Charles VII) 1742 >
Wir Carl der Siebende, von Gottes Gnaden erwählter Römischer Kayser, zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs,
in Germanien und zu Böheim König, dann
in Ober- und Nieder-Bayern, wie auch der Obernpfalz Herzog;
Pfalzgraf bey Rhein,
Erzherzog in Oesterreich,
des H. Rom. Reichs Churfürst,
Landgraf zu Leuchtenberg etc. etc.

(June 1744) [34: p.139; Doc.# XVIII]
Wir Carl der Siebende von Gottes Gnaden Erwehlter Römischer Kayser, zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs,
in Germanien und Böheim König,
in Ober und Nieder Bayern auch der Obern Pfaltz Hertzog,
Pfaltz-Graf bey Rhein,
Ertz-Hertzog zu Oesterreich, und
Land-Graff zu Leuchtenberg zc.






--- 1745-1766 ( Francis I )

Emperor of the Romans;
King in Germany, of Jerusalem;
Archduke of Austria;
Duke of Lorraine, Bar,
Grand Duke of Tuscany;
Duke of Calabria, in Silesia of Cieszyn;
Prince of Charleville;
Margrave of Pont-à-Mousson, Nomeny;
Count of Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zütphen, Saarwerden, Salm, Falkenstein;

@ Samples:

(Oct 1758) [4: Band 50 (Jahr 1885), p.5]
< Francis (+1765), Duke of Lorraine (Francis III) [1729-1735], Emperor of the Romans (Francis I) 1745; ~1736 Mary-Theresa(+1780), Queen of Hungary & Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria >
Nos Franciscus Divinâ Favente Clementia electus Romanorum Imperator, semper Augustus, ac
Germaniae et Hierosolymarum Rex,
Dux Lotharingiae, Barri, et
Magnus Hetruriae Dux,
Calabriae, Geldriae, Montisferrati, in Silesia Teschenae,
Princeps Carolopolis,
Marchio Mussiponti et Nomenei,
Comes Provinciae, Valdemontis, Albemontis, Zutphaniae, Saarwerdenae, Salmae, Falckensteinei, etc. etc.

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(Mar 1764) [42: p.96]
< Joseph II (+1790), King of the Romans 1764; Emperor of the Romans 1765; Archduke of Austria 1780; King of Hungary & Bohemia 1780 >
Wir Joseph der Andere von Gottes Gnaden erwählter Römischer König, zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs,
in Germanien König,
zu Hungarn, Böheim, Dalmatien, Croatien, Sclavonien zc. zc. Königlicher Erb-Prinz,
Erzherzog zu Oesterreich,
Herzog zu Burgund, zu Lothringen und Baar zc.
Groß-Prinz zu Toscana zc.






--- 1766-1772 ( Joseph II )

Emperor of the Romans;
King in Germany, of Jerusalem;
Co-Ruler & Heir to the Throne of Kingdom of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia;
Archduke of Austria;
Duke of Burgundy, Lorraine, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola,
Grand Duke of Tuscany;
Grand Prince of Transylvania;
Margrave of Moravia;
Duke of Brabant, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland, Württemberg, the Upper & Lower Silesia, Milan, Mantua, Parma, Piacenza, Guastalla, Calabria, Bar, Montferrat, Cieszyn;
Prince of Swabia, Charleville;
Princely Count of Habsburg, Flanders, Tyrol, Hainaut, Kyburg, Gorizia, Gradisca;
Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, of Burgau, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Pont-à-Mousson, Nomeny;
Count of Namur, Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zütphen, Saarwerden, Salm, Falkenstein;
Lord of the Wendish March, Mechelen;






--- 1772-1780 ( Joseph II )

Emperor of the Romans;
King in Germany, of Jerusalem;
Co-Ruler & Heir to the Throne of Kingdom of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia, Lodomeria;
Archduke of Austria;
Duke of Burgundy, Lorraine, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola,
Grand Duke of Tuscany;
Grand Prince of Transylvania;
Margrave of Moravia;
Duke of Brabant, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland, Württemberg, the Upper & Lower Silesia, Milan, Mantua, Parma, Piacenza, Guastalla, Calabria, Bar, Montferrat, Cieszyn, Oswiecin, Zator;
Prince of Swabia, Charleville;
Princely Count of Habsburg, Flanders, Tyrol, Hainaut, Kyburg, Gorizia, Gradisca;
Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, of Burgau, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Pont-à-Mousson, Nomeny;
Count of Namur, Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zütphen, Saarwerden, Salm, Falkenstein;
Lord of the Wendish March, Mechelen;

@ Samples:

(Oct 1774) [1: Neue Folge; Jahrgang XVII (1908); p.274; Doc.# III]
< Joseph II (+1790), King of the Romans 1764; Emperor of the Romans 1765; Archduke of Austria 1780; King of Hungary & Bohemia 1780 >
Wir Joseph der Andere von Gottes Gnaden, erwählter Römischer Kaiser zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs,
in Germanien und zu Ierusalem König,
Mit-Regent und Erb-Thronfolger der Königreiche Hungarn, Böhmen, Dalmatien, Croatien, Slavonien, Galitien, Lodomerien,
Erz-Herzog zu Österreich,
Herzog zu Burgund, zu Lothringen, zu Steyer, zu Kärnten und Crain,
Großherzog zu Toscana,
Großfürst zu Siebenbürgen,
Margraf zu Mähren,
Herzog zu Brabant, zu Limburg, zu Geldern, zu Wirtemberg, zu Ober- und zu Nieder-Schlesien, zu Mailand, zu Mantua, zu Parma, Piacenza und Quastalla, zu Auschwitz und Zator, zu Calabrien, zu Bar, zu Montferrat, und zu Teschen, Fürst zu Schwaben, und zu Charleville,
gefürsteter Graf zu Habsburg, zu Flandern, zu Tirol, zu Hennegau, zu Kyburg, zu Görtz und zu Gradisca,
Margraf des heiligen Römischen Reichs, zu Burgau zu Ober- und Nieder-Lausitz, zu Pont-à-Mousson und zu Nomeny,
Graf zu Namur, zu Provinz, zu Vaudemont, zu Blankenberg, zu Zütphen, zu Saarwerden, zu Salm, und zu Falkenstein,
Herr auf der Windischen Mark und zu Mehlen






--- 1780-1804

Emperor of the Romans;
King in Germany, of Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia, Lodomeria;
Archduke of Austria;
Duke of Burgundy, Lorraine, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola,
Grand Duke of Tuscany;
Grand Prince of Transylvania;
Margrave of Moravia;
Duke of Brabant, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland, Württemberg, the Upper & Lower Silesia, Milan, Mantua, Parma, Piacenza, Guastalla, Calabria, Bar, Montferrat, Cieszyn, Oswiecin, Zator;
Prince of Swabia, Charleville;
Princely Count of Habsburg, Flanders, Tyrol, Hainaut, Kyburg, Gorizia, Gradisca;
Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, of Burgau, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Pont-à-Mousson, Nomeny;
Count of Namur, Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zütphen, Saarwerden, Salm, Falkenstein;
Lord of the Wendish March, Mechelen;

@ Samples:

(Mar 1786) [5: p.690-691; Appendix III]
< Joseph II (+1790), King of the Romans 1764; Emperor of the Romans 1765; Archduke of Austria 1780; King of Hungary & Bohemia 1780 >
Nos Josephus Secundus Divina favente Clementia electus Romanorum [Imperator], semper Augustus,
Germaniæ, Hierosolymæ, Hungariæ, Bohemiæ, Dalmatiæ, Croatiæ, Slavoniæ, Galiciæ et Lodomeriæ Rex,
Archidux Austriæ,
Dux Burgundiæ, Lotharingiæ, Styriæ, Carinthiæ et Carniolæ,
Magnus Dux Hetruriæ,
Magnus Princeps Transylvaniæ,
Marchio Moraviæ,
Dux Brabantiæ, Limburgi, Lucemburgi et Geldriæ, Wurtembergæ, Superioris et Inferioris Silesiæ, Mediolani, Mantuæ, Parmæ, Placentiæ, Guastallæ, Osvecinæ et Zatoriæ, Calabriæ, Barri, Montisferrati et Teschinæ,
Princeps Sueviæ et Carolopolis,
Comes Habsburgi, Flandriæ, Tyrolis, Hannoniæ, Kiburgi, Goritiæ et Gradiscæ,
Marchio Sacri Romani Imperii, Burgoviæ, Superioris et Inferioris Lusatiæ, Mussiponti et Nomenei,
Comes Namurci, Provinciæ Valdemontis, Albimontis, Zutphaniæ, Sarwerdæ, Salmæ et Falkenstenii,
Dominus Marchiæ Slavonicæ et Mechliniæ






--- 1804-1806 ( Francis II )

Emperor of the Romans;
Emperor of Austria;
King in Germany,
King of Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia, Lodomeria;
Archduke of Austria;
Duke of Lorraine, Venice, Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola;
Grand Prince of Transylvania;
Margrave of Moravia;
Duke of Württemberg, the Upper & Lower Silesia; Parma, Piacenza, Guastalla, Oswiecin, Zator, Cieszyn, Friuli, Zadar;
Prince of Swabia, Eichstädt, Passau, Trent, Brixen, Berchtoldsgaden, Lindau;
Princely Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Kyburg, Gorizia, Gradisca;
Margrave of Burgau, the Upper & Lower Lusatia;
Landgrave in Breisgau, in the Ortenau, Nellenburg;
Count of Montfort, Hohenems, the Upper & Lower Hohenberg, Bregenz, Sonnenberg, Rothenfels, Blumeneck, Hofen;
Lord of the Wendish March, Verona, Vicenza, Padua;

@ Samples:

(Aug 1804) [3: tome IV; p.89-92]
< Francis (+1792), Emperor of the Romans (Francis II) [1792-1806]; Archduke of Austria 1792; King of Hungary & Bohemia 1792; Emperor of Austria 1804 (Francis I) >
Nos Franciscus II divina favente clementia electus Romanorum imperator semper Augustus;
hereditarius Austriae imperator;
Germaniae, Hyerosolymae, Hungariae, Bohemiae, Dalmatiae, Croatiae, Sclavoniae, Galliciae, Lodomeriae, Rex;
Archidux Austriae;
Dux Lotharingiae, Venetiarum, Salisburgi, Styriae, Carinthiae et Carnioliae;
Magnus princeps Transylvaniae;
Marchio Moraviae;
Dux Wurtemburgae, superioris et inferioris Silesiae, Parmae, Placentiae, Guastallae, Osveciniae et Zatoriae, Teschinae, Forojulii et Jaderae;
Princeps Sveviae, Quercopolis, Passaviae, Tridenti et Brixinae, Berchtolsgadenae et Lindaugiae;
Comes Habsburgi, Tirolis, Kyburgi, Goritiae et Gradiscae,
[Marchio] Burgoviae, superioris et inferioris Lusatiae;
Landgravius Brisgoviae, Ortenaviae et Nellenburgi;
Comes a Monte-forte et Alta-Amisiae, superioris et inferioris Hohenbergae, Brigantii, Sonnenbergae, Rothenfelsii, Blumennekii, et Hovenae;
Dominus Marchiae Sclavonicae, Patavii, Veronae, Vincentiae etc.









The German Empire (1871-1918)


--- 1871-1918

German Emperor;
King of Prussia;

@ Samples:

(Oct 1878) [40: Band VII (1893); p.303]
< William I (+March 1888), King of Prussia 1861; German Emperor 1871 >
Wir Wilhelm von Gottes Gnaden Deutscher Kaiser,
König von Preußen u.s.w.

(Mar 1888) [40: Band XII (1894); p.482]
< Frederick III (+ June 1888), German Emperor and King of Prussia March 1888 >
Wir Friedrich von Gottes Gnaden Deutscher Kaiser,
König von Preußen zc.

(Aug 1914) [41: p.195]
< William II (+1941), German Emperor and King of Prussia [1888-1918] >
Wir Wilhelm von Gottes Gnaden Deutscher Kaiser,
König von Preußen u.s.w.









Appendix 1. East Francia / Germany (843-962)

--- 843-896

King;

@ Samples:

(874) [32: Band I; Abtheilung I (1885); p.29; Doc.# 66]
< Louis "the German" (+876), King in Bavaria in 817, of East Francia (Germany) 843 >
Hludowicus divina favente gratia rex

(Nov 877) [35: p.461; Doc.# CCLXXIV]
< Carloman (+880), King in Bavaria [876-879], in Italy [877-879] >
Karlomannus divina favente gratia rex

(Jan 880) [35: p.498; Doc.# CCXCIII]
< Charles III “the Fat” (+888), King in Swabia 865, in East Francia [882-887], in Italy 879; Emperor 881 >
Karolus divina ordinante providentia rex

(Jan 882) [32: Band I; Abtheilung I (1885); p.32; Doc.# 73]
< Louis "the Younger" (+882), King in Saxony 876, in Bavaria 880 >
Hludowicus divina favente clementia rex

(June 889) [35: p.573; Doc.# CCCXLIII]
< Arnulf (+899), King in East Francia 887, in Italy 894; Emperor 896 >
Arnulfus divina favente clementia rex






--- 896-899 ( Arnulf )

Emperor;

@ Samples:

(Sep 898) [36: Band II (1856); p.40; Doc.# XXX]
< Arnulf (+899), King in East Francia 887, in Italy 894; Emperor 896 >
Arnolfus diuina fauente clementia Imperator augustus






--- 899-962

King;

@ Samples:

(Dec 909) [32: Band I; Abtheilung I (1885); p.38; Doc.# 83]
< Louis "the Child" (+911), King in East Francia (Germany) 899 >
Hludowicus divina favente clementia rex

(Nov 911) [33: tomus I (1879-1884); p.2; Doc.# 1]
< Conrad I (+918), King in Germany 911 >
Chuonradus divina favente clementia rex

(June 922) [33: tomus I (1879-1884); p.2; Doc.# 1]
< Henry I (+936), King in Germany 918 >
Heinricus divina favente clementia rex

(May 950) [32: Band I; Abtheilung I (1885); p.43; Doc.# 90]
< Otto I (+973), King in Germany 936, Emperor 962 >
Otto divina auxiliante clementia rex